Dog By The Ocean Twilight Panorama

Don Charisma

This is a twilight panorama, right at the end of the sunset, just before getting very dark. And a black dog waking up from sleeping all day, probably !

Enjoy 😀 Our fantastic photos are available to buy at . For our blog readers we’re currently offering a 15% promotional discount – use code dc1406 at checkout.
Taken in Thailand, Asia © Don Charisma

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Single & Multiple Camera Production – Notes

Single & Multiple Camera Production


A producer or director of a live action production must make two basic decisions before production begins. First, she must decide whether one or more than one camera should be used to record or transmit images. Using one camera is called single camera production, whereas using more than one camera is referred to as multiple camera production. Second, a decision must be made about whether the images should be recorded inside or outside the studio. Recording inside the studio is known as studio production whereas recording outside the studio is called location production in film and remote production (involving cable/microwave links to the studio) or field production in video.

 Multiple Camera Production

Multiple camera production techniques are used to record continuous action quickly and efficiently without interruption. Such techniques are the basis for television news programs, entertainment programs involving a studio audience, as well as much corporate, educational and religious programming. Remote coverage of sporting events almost always requires multiple cameras. Multiple film cameras are frequently used to record dangerous stunts simultaneously from a variety of angles for feature films.

Single Camera Production

In single camera production, each separate shot is set up and recorded individually. The main artistic advantage of single camera production is that few compromises have to be made in lighting or microphone placement to accommodate the viewing requirements of several different cameras. Logistically, only one camera needs to be set up or carried into the field at a time. Single camera production of dramatic fiction usually begins with the recording of a master shot, which covers as much of the action in a scene as possible from a single camera position. Then the same actions are repeated and recorded again with the camera placed closer to the action. The resulting material is combined during post production editing. Single camera production techniques are used to record feature films, documentaries and television commercials as well as in news recording. Except for live coverage of sports events, single camera production is the norm for location and remote production situation.

Advantages of Single Camera Production:

  1. Cheaper; if more cameras were used, each camera man would cost money and lighting and sound units. With multiple cameras running, the costs increase.
  2. More aesthetic control; lighting and sound for each shot, enhances the detail and excitement.
  3. Don’t need both actors on set at the same time; film the shots for one whilst the other is in their trailer and vice versa.
  4. Practicality, you aren’t limited in how much space you need to set up your shot.


Disadvantages for Single Camera Production:

  1. It takes longer to set up because of all the cameras and camera men.
  2. Less realistic reactions; as one actor gets filmed at a time, the reactions aren’t as natural.
  3. Repetition; repeat the same shot 3 times to get each angle as you can only get one at a time, however use of multiple cameras you’re able to capture everything at once.
  4. Editing time; you’ll be spending a lot of time in the editing suit because of all the shots that have been taken. With multiple cameras, you could shoot different angles and takes at the same time, using different people for the cameras.

Single Camera TV Programs/Films 

The Pacific, X Files, True Blood, Sex and the City, Peep Show, Shutter Island, The Beach, Spaced, The Tourist, Run Fat boy Run, Skins, C.S.I, Lost

Advantages of Multiple Camera Production

  1. It doesn’t take as long to shoot a production because of all the cameras that are recording.
  2. The reactions are more realistic because you’re doing the scene with the other actor so the emotion that you create; therefore enhancing the reactions.
  3. Using lighting and sound is a lot easier because you don’t have to keep packing the equipment to move to the next location like single camera production.
  4. You get a lot of the scenes covered in a shorter amount of time compared to single camera as you capture various angles and shots within 1 day.

Disadvantages of Multiple Camera Production 

  1. It takes longer to set up due to the large amount of equipment unlike single camera production.
  2. It’s definitely more expensive; the camera-men you need to hire and the additional cameras are going to cost a little more than single camera production!
  3. The locations that the director uses are mostly sets and not real places which, in some cases, you can see through windows or mirrors the cameraman filming or a piece of their equipment.

Multiple Camera Production:

Holly oaks, Friends, Bad Boys 2, Scrubs, Lost: Episode One, Britain’s Got Talent / X Factor, Jonathan Ross, Babylon A.D


Visuals in Advertising

With the starting of the usage of advertising as an influence and persuasion tool in mass communication, the role of it become more important and advertisers use different persuasion techniques to stick advertising messages to the mind of their target audiences. In this process, visual elements become important tools of advertisements and especially with using visual figures as rhetorical devices, advertisers try to communicate much more accurately and effectively. Therefore, present study will focus on the role and usage of visual rhetoric in print advertising and it will show the analysis of two print advertisements which use the artwork images as a rhetorical figure.

Keywords: print advertising, visual rhetoric, artwork images.


Advertising and Visual Rhetoric

In recent years, with the increase of the variety of product and consumer awareness, marketing activities have increased dramatically, too, and the role of advertisements becomes more important. When we look the historical background of advertisements, at the beginning its aim was to inform the people about any product or service. However, today the aim of advertisements which are used as an influence and persuasion tool in mass communication, to create the desired changes in behaviors of target market and by this way to sell the product. For this purpose, advertisers try to use various persuasion techniques and one of them is create a rhetorical language by using theeffectiveness of visualization. Therefore, this study explores the meta-language of advertisement exposed through the case of visual rhetoric and it shows the analysis of two print advertisements which use the images of artworks as a visual rhetorical item.

With the starting of the usage of advertisements for the convincing the consumers, and the increasing role of visual communication in this process, direct to the advertisers for the usage of the power of visualization. “When Aristo define the five senses approximately 2500 years ago, the first thing he had said was vision. After 2500 years later, we can say that vision has been replaced by visuality. Visuality perceived as a form, shade, color, saturation, depth, motion, but all of them are coordinated in brain.” (Trans.: F.N.K., Batı, p34). All of these items come together in advertising design and create a connotative meaning in the mind of receivers. However, although the product does not have any meaning on its own, the meaning interchange created by the advertisers through visual figures makes the product meaningful for the consumers. “In the process of signification, the product which is being advertised replaced with an image or emotion, and it appropriates the meaning of them to itself. (Trans.:F.N.K., Batı, p264).Therefore, advertisers use visual rhetorical figures as a way of expression to aestheticize the visuality and by this way they increase the effectiveness of the process of meaning exchange and reinforce their communication process.

“Traditionally, rhetoric was considered ‘the exclusive province of verbal language’ (Kenney and Scott, 2003, p19) where presentation of an argument was manipulated so as to be most impacting.” (Bulmer&Oliver, p55). However, today every kind of figurative element that is realized by visual text is also accepted as a kind rhetoric and it is called as a “visual rhetoric”.

“Visual rhetoric can be described as a form of communication that uses images for creating meaning or constructing an argument. Hence, an analysis of visual rhetoric considers how images work alone and collaborate with other elements to create an argument designed for moving a specific audience.”(Bulmer&Oliver, p.55).

Visual communication is any form of communication that conveys an idea through visual aid. It therefore, relies purely on vision.

Types of visual communication include: drawing, graphic design, colors, signs, symbols, illustration, typography, etc.

A good piece of visual communication should be able to easily convey its message to the audience. However, sometimes that depends on personal preferences and artistic skills.

In everyday life, we communicate both through visual communication and language. However, we tend to forget that we do. When asked to give an example of a method of communication, people generally reply “language”. We take visual communication for granted because it happens unconsciously most of the time.

In Medieval times, most people were not literate so Christian churches told stories of the saints and angels by images on stained glass.

On the streets, we understand that the color red means stop and the color green means go without having to think about it.

When our USB lights up, we know that it is now connected to our computer and ready to be used.

Seeing athletes on television, we know the one with a golden medal is the winner.

In a program like Adobe PhotoShop, its toolbox has only symbols representing the use of each tool.

Aldous Huxley

Aldous Huxley was a famous English writer who was also famous for exploring different aspects of visual communication. He was the author of Brave New World and The Art of Seeing.

He wrote in total 11 novels, seven short stories, seven poems, three pieces of travel writing, six theatrical plays, 21 essays, 47 articles, two philosophical books, two non-fictions, two children’s books, 11 screenplays, and five collections of work.

When he was 17, he suffered from keratitis punctata, an illness that causes inflammation in the eye’s cornea (the front part of the eye). It “left [him] practically blind for two to three years”. (Huxley, 1939) This blindness saved him from the First World War and also set him off on an exploration of the world of visual communication.

According to Huxley, ‘seeing’ is the sum of sensing, selecting, and perceiving. One of his most famous quotes is “The more you see, the more you know.”

Max Wertheimer

Max Wertheimer is a Czech-born psychologist who is said to be the father of Gestalt psychology, for he was one of the three founders (along with Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang KÖhler).

Gestalt psychology emphasizes our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful whole. (Gestalt is a German word for “form or “whole”.) Gestalt psychology can be used to explain our perception.

  1. Figure-ground is an organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground).
  2. Grouping is a perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups. You can group stimuli by:
  • Proximity: to group near-by objects together.
  • Similarity: to group similar objects together.
  • Continuity: to group objects that seem to be continued from each other together.
  • Connectedness: to group objects that seem to be connected to each other together.
  • Closure: to group objects that are organized to look like they form another figure.

Visual language

Visual language is when images are used to communicate.

Basically, this can be done by visualizing an idea instead of verbalizing it as we normally do. Then express that visual that we have created.

Dreaming is actually a beginning. The images we see in our dreams are practically the same as the images we imagine when we are awake. (Hiller, 2000) Our dreams can occur with or without sounds, words or colors. The difference is that when we are awake, there are always immediate perception, mood and brief memories in the foreground. (Edelman, 2000) Daydreaming is another example, for it is projected straight from the imagination. (Gombrich, 1960)

Our brain is separated into two hemispheres that are connected together by neural fibers called corpus callosum. The left hemisphere is the principal one, for it is responsible for activities like reading, writing, speaking, understanding and reasoning. The right hemisphere, which is random and intuitive, is the minor hemisphere.

Obviously, the left hemisphere is the crucial one. We need it in order to complete our daily routine. However, many people look pass the importance of the right hemisphere.

In order to be creative, we have to train our right hemisphere. This is the part of our brain that is responsible for visual language. It thinks in images.

One good way of training our right hemisphere is to draw with it.

All we have to do is to find an object or a person, anything really, and draw it. Draw it the way we see it and not what we think it is supposed to look like.

For example, try pointing your fingers at your face and draw it. If you let your left hemisphere take over, your fingers will look crooked because you will draw your nails the way you know them, full square or circular-shaped nails. But if you use your right hemisphere and draw exactly what you see, you will end up with only the tip of your nails.

One suggestion is not to talk while drawing, because talking requires the use of the left hemisphere that we are trying to ignore.

Visual literacy

Visual literacy is “ability to construct meaning from visual images” (Giorgis, Johnson, Bonomo, Colbert, & al, 1999: 146), which includes the ability “to understand and use visuals for intentionally communicating with others” (Ausburn & Ausburn, 1978: 291). it is all about interpreting and producing images. But it also requires the ability to judge whether a piece of visual communication is accurate and valid. There is no solid discipline in interpreting or understanding but rather emerges from many different disciplines including: visual arts, art history, aesthetics, linguistics, literacy, philosophy, psychology, perceptual physiology, sociology, cultural studies, media studies, instructional design, semiotics, communications studies, and educational technology. (Bamford, 2003)

We now live in an era of visual culture (Ausburn, 1978: 287), which has been influencing our attitudes, beliefs and life-style.

According to Dr Anne Bamford, the director of Visual Arts at Art and Design University of Technology Sydney, visual communication includes gestures, objects, signs and symbols. (2003) Some examples of visual signs are dance, hairstyles, monuments, lighting, computer games, interior designs, etc. and visual communication is also an effective way of teaching and studying as well.

Probably without realizing it, humans have relied on visual literacy in everyday life to read maps, x-ray films, mathematical/chemical formulas, etc.

Children’s development and visual literacy

6-7 weeks: able to create memory pictures

  • allows them to discriminate their mother’s face from other women

12 months: able to read graphic imagery

  • allows them to understand that a picture of a banana signifies a real banana

3 years: able to understand what graphic imagery intends to communicate, and to use and understand visual symbols

  • allows them to know that the ‘m’ shape denotes a bird (Bamford, 2003)

Syntax and semantics of visual literacy

Syntax: the form or building blocks of an image (Bamford, 2003)

Examples: dimension, light, framing, color, line, contrast, symbolism, metaphor, parody, background

Semantics: the way images relate more broadly to issues in the world to gain meaning. It is created through form and structure; culturally constructed ideas; and social interaction. (Bamford, 2003)

Visual tools

Visual tools help organize our way of thinking, which helps with learning.

According to Model Learning, we can organize our thoughts in four ways:

  • Defining
  • Comparing
  • Sequencing
  • Finding causes and effects (2007)

When these tools are applied in a systematic way, they will help us to create new ideas, understand information, manage information, analyze, reason, control our thinking, plan to communicate, explain (and therefore, persuade) and lastly, to improve our memory. (Model Learning, 2007)

Visual tools lead to successful learning.

Visual forms

Visual forms “are not perceived differently from colors or brightness. They are sense qualities, and the visual character of geometry consists in these sense qualities”. (Folkert & Atley, 2009)

A book has one visual form if we look at it when we hold it steadily in our hands, but if we tilt it slightly to the left, its visual form changes. (Hellie, 2005)

Visual form may include lines, shape, contrast, scale, texture, etc.

For example, a straight line gives a sense of properness and sometimes even restriction, while a curved line evokes creativity and encourages imagination. (Buzan, 2002)

The forming of lines can be effective in many ways. It is used in optical illusion, for example.


Typography is the art of arranging, designing and modifying type.

It involves typefaces, point size, line length, leading (line spacing), tracking (adjusting space between groups of letters) and kerning (adjusting space between pairs of letters). (Pipes, 1997)

The first typography was punches used to make seals and currency in ancient times.

The contemporary typography study is very broad. It includes: typesetting and type design, handwriting and calligraphy, graffiti, inscriptional and architectural lettering, poster design, business communications and promotional collateral, advertising, wordmarks and logotypes, apparel, labels on maps, vehicle instrument panels, motion picture films and television, industrial design, and modern poetry.

A good typography should be legible and readable.

To read more about typography in advertising, click here.


Colors derive from the spectrum of light.

Each color depends on the wavelength of light.

Different objects reflect different amount of light and therefore, have different colors. For example, an object we see as red reflects all colors but red into our eyes. We see black when no light is reflected and white when all colors in light are reflected.

There are three colors in light: red, blue and green.

Not red, blue and yellow as most people might think. In Art classes, we learn how to mix colors from the primary colors red, blue and yellow. However, it is different in light. Colors are mixed from red, blue and green.

This can explain one of the questions the New Radicals posed in their song ‘Someday We’ll Know’: Why is the sky blue?

The atmosphere is made of many gas elements, including oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In fact, approximately 80% of the atmosphere is nitrogen.

Nitrogen has no problem letting the colors red and green in light through. However, it scatters the color blue all over. So the colors red and green come directly down at the earth. (Green mostly goes to leaves of the trees.) And the color blue just floats around in the air. So when we look up at the sky, we see blue.

When the sun is setting or rising, it moves further away from us to the opposite side of the globe. Therefore, light from the sun has to travel a longer distance to our eyes. Blue gets scattered more. Green still goes to plants. Which leaves red. And that is why the sky turns red when the sun sets or rises.

Did you know that the color with the most energy is lime green? A red laser usually has three times more energy than a green laser and still looks darker to the eye.

The part of the eye that is sensitive to light is the retina, where visual information process begins. In the retina are the rods and cones. The rods are at the peripheral retina. They work when there is not much light and therefore operate twilight vision. The rods detect white, black and gray. The cones on the other hand work when there is enough light. They detect colors and details.

So light enters the eye and triggers photochemical reaction in the rods and cones. Then chemical reaction will activate bipolar cells, which in turn activate ganglion cells. The ganglion cells converge to form optic nerves. Once the cones receive color information, they send it to the brain via the optic nerves. They transmit these neural impulses to the visual cortex in occipital lobe.

And that is how you see colors.

The brain is actually what determines what you see. Not the eyes.

The brain also has three opponent processes for colors: a red-green channel, a blue-yellow channel and a black-white channel. This theory explains why we cannot see a reddish green color, for example. If you have a text written in red, for example, and stare at it for a period of time. Then look away from it at a white background, you will see the text written lightly in green.

Color theory deals with color mixing and the visual impact of colors.

As mentioned earlier, the three colors in light are red, blue and green. Mixing the colors of light is called additive color mixing, while mixing paint is called subtractive color mixing.

Most color effects are based on contrasts on three relative attributes: lightness (light versus dark or white versus black), saturation (intense versus dull) and hue (red, orange, yellow, green, blue or purple).

Many people believe (or are taught in Art classes) that the three pure primary colors can mix all possible colors. Any failure to do so is due to the imperfection of either the paint or the mixer himself. However, the three primary colors can mix only to a limited range of colors, which is called a gamut. A gamut is smaller than the range of colors that human eye can see. The primary colors needed to mix those colors out of the gamut are imaginary.

Warm colors are opposite to cool colors. For example, red is opposite to green and orange is opposite to blue.

Using colors to communicate

Many communicators use colors as a tool to send messages visually to the audience who unconsciously receives them.

Blue is a trustworthy, dependable and committed color. It is perceived as constant, for it is the color of the sky and the ocean. It is also many people’s favorite color. It is calming and cooling, and suggests our body to rest. It aids intuition and is the least gender specific color (has equal appeal to both men and women).

Green is the second favorite color after blue. It signifies nature and is an ideal backdrop in interior design. People are used to seeing green. It is a color of peace and ecology. It is soothing, relaxing, with a sense of renewal and harmony. It can help reduce depression and anxiety.

Yellow is a color of optimism, enlightenment and happiness. It helps spark creative thoughts, for it is mentally stimulating. It stimulates the nervous system, activates memory and encourages communication. A golden yellow can signify a positive future.

Orange is a fun, warm and energetic color. It triggers mostly a strong like or dislike response. It stimulates activity and appetite. It also encourages socialization.

Red has the most personal associations than other colors. Red is exciting and energetic. It draws attention and is stimulating. It increases enthusiasm, encourages action and confidence, which gives a sense of protection from fear and anxiety.

Purple has a sense of mystic and royal qualities, and therefore is often used by creative and eccentric types. It tends to be the favorite color of adolescent girls. It also offers a sense of spirituality. It has the combination of stimulation from red and calm from blue. It is uplifting, calming to mind and nerves, and encourages creativity.

Brown suggests stability, reliability and approachability. It is the color of the earth and is therefore associated with natural and organic things. It gives a feeling of wholesomeness and a sense of orderliness.

White is a color of purity, cleanliness and neutrality. It aids mental clarity, encourages one to defeat obstacles and enables fresh beginnings. Doctors wear white coats. Traditional wedding dresses are also white. And an image of a safe and lovely home includes a white picket fence.

Gray is a timeless, practical and solid color. It can mix well with any color. This is the reason why it is a favorite suit color. However, people rarely name gray as their favorite color possibly because it is associated with loss and depression. It gives a sense of unsettling and expectant.

Black is authoritative and powerful. It can evoke strong emotions. It gives a sense of inconspicuous, a restful emptiness and mysterious possibility. Black clothes are thinning and more sophisticated. (Color_Expert, 2009)

People in the world are separated into groups according to their skin color. Tanned skin suggests wealth, while pale suggests unhealthiness. Blondes are known as the ‘dumb’ ones and white hair proposes intelligence.

Advertising & Visual Communication

Visual metaphors are used a lot in advertising. (Boozer, Wyld, & Grant, 1991) They help elaborate the message intended to send through to the audience and increase the chance of persuading them. They are likely to increase the cognition value of the message, which leads to cognitive elaboration when the audience processes the message. (Jeong, 2006) Messaris’ studies of visual persuasion show that the cognitive elaboration achieved by visual argumentation of an advertisement leads to a greater persuasiveness of visual propositions. (1997)

Through visual tools, an advertisement can suggest its attitude, the brand attitude, product belief and purchase intention. (Jeong, 2006)

Phillips & McQuarrie analyzed US magazine advertisements from 1954 to 1999 and found out that many rhetorical figures, including visual metaphors, were widespread and even increasing throughout the period. (2002)

Message cognition value (MCV) is the structural and formal features of the message related to the complexity and implicitness of the message. (Harrington et al., 2003)

Complex and implicit messages have high MCV, while simple and explicit messages have low MCV.

However, MCV does not mean quality or content of message.

Visual metaphors can increase MCV of an advertisement without changing its original message or product claim. (Jeong, 2006)

Dual processing models explains the reason why high MCV can lead to greater persuasiveness of a message.

Dual processing models include the elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1981) and heuristic-system model (Chaiken, 1980).

They propose two ways of persuasion: central and peripheral (ELM) or systematic and heuristic (HSM).

The models suggest that the persuasiveness of a message depends on the amount of thought the audience puts into the message.

Peripheral processing or heuristic cues may persuade the audience, but central and systematic processing still has more likelihood of more persistent belief and attitude change.

Advertisements with visual metaphors force the audience to elaborate on what is already given. The audience has to consider the message more thoughtfully and actively respond to it. They are therefore more likely to believe the message.

Furthermore, visual argumentation requires the audience to interpret the message according to their own construction meaning. And people are more likely to be persuaded by the proposition they have constructed themselves. (Messaris, 1997)

A research was conducted where three groups of audience were to be exposed to three different sets of advertisements for the same product: toothpaste. One advertisement was completely verbal, claiming “Kingfisher toothpaste will make your teeth pearly white”. The second one was moderately verbal with only “Flash ‘em” as a verbal claim. The last one was non-verbal, which associated toothpaste with a pearl necklace.

The research showed that the audience understood more of the higher level of verbal anchoring advertisements but liked and believed them less.

This suggests that the persuasive effects depend on the visual argumentation’s implicit characteristic that leads to the audience’s active participation. (Phillips, 2000)

Metaphors lead to high MCV because they demand great cognitive activity and elaboration. Artful deviations also cause pleasure of the text that is linked to the advertisement. (McQuarrie & Mick, 1999)

Metaphors kind of take the audience slightly away from reality, for it is wrong in its literal sense but makes sense in a whole different way. They therefore give the audience a positive attitude toward an advertisement, which increases the source credibility.

A simple reaction like “Oh! I got it!” from the audience can increase pleasure in seeing the advertisement.

People or advertisements that use metaphors are viewed as having high creativity and seem more credible. The audience also feels that they share some commonality. (Jeong, 2006)

Metaphors in general are also more persuasive and effective that direct claims.



Appeal Tools

Different Types of Advertising Appeals

Advertising appeals aim to influence the way consumers view themselves and how buying certain products can prove to be beneficial for them. The message conveyed through advertising appeals influences the purchasing decisions of consumers. Keep on reading to know the various different types of advertising appeals that can be seen in the media today.

The most basic of human needs is the need for food, clothing and shelter. Special need for these necessities cannot be created with advertising. However there are certain other products that provide comfort in life and advertising aims to generate demand for these products. Advertising uses appeals as a way of persuading people to buy certain products. Advertising appeals are designed in a way so as to create a positive image of the individuals who use certain products. Advertising agencies and companies use different types of advertising appeals to influence the purchasing decisions of people.

The most important types of advertising appeals include emotional and rational appeals. Emotional appeals are often effective for the youth while rational appeals work well for products directed towards the older generation. Here are just some of the various different kinds of advertising appeals seen in the media today:

Emotional Appeal

An emotional appeal is related to an individual’s psychological and social needs for purchasing certain products and services. Many consumers are emotionally motivated or driven to make certain purchases. Advertisers aim to cash in on the emotional appeal and this works particularly well where there is not much difference between multiple product brands and its offerings. Emotional appeal includes personal and social aspects.

  1. Personal Appeal
    Some personal emotions that can drive individuals to purchase products include safety, fear, love, humor, joy, happiness, sentiment, stimulation, pride, self esteem, pleasure, comfort, ambition, nostalgia etc.
  2. Social Appeal
    Social factors cause people to make purchases and include such aspects as recognition, respect, involvement, affiliation, rejection, acceptance, status and approval.
  3. Fear Appeal
    Fear is also an important factor that can have incredible influence on individuals. Fear is often used to good effect in advertising and marketing campaigns of beauty and health products including insurance. Advertising experts indicate that using moderate levels of fear in advertising can prove to be effective.
  4. Humor Appeal
    Humor is an element that is used in around 30% of the advertisements. Humor can be an excellent tool to catch the viewer’s attention and help in achieving instant recall which can work well for the sale of the product. Humor can be used effectively when it is related to some benefit that the customer can derive without which the joke might overpower the message.

Music Appeal

Music can be used as types of advertising appeals as it has a certain intrinsic value and can help in increasing the persuasiveness of the advertisement. It can also help capture attention and increase customer recall.

Scarcity Appeal

Scarcity appeals are based on limited supplies or limited time period for purchase of products and are often used while employing promotional tools including sweepstakes, contests etc.

Rational Appeal

Rational appeals as the name suggests aims to focus on the individual’s functional, utilitarian or practical needs for particular products and services. Such appeals emphasize the characteristics and features of the product and the service and how it would be beneficial to own or use the particular brand. Print media is particularly well suited for rational appeals and is often used with good success. It is also suited for business to business advertisers and for products that are complex and that need high degree of attention and involvement.

Masculine Feminine Appeal

Used in cosmetic or beauty products and also clothing. This type of appeal aims at creating the impression of the perfect person. The message is that the product will infuse the perfection or the stated qualities in you.

Brand Appeal

This appeal is directed towards people who are brand conscious and wish to choose particular products to make a brand statement.

Snob Appeal

This appeal is directed towards creating feeling of desire or envy for products that are termed top of the line or that have considerable qualities of luxury, elegance associated with them.

Adventure Appeal

This appeal is directed towards giving the impression that purchasing a product will change the individual’s life radically and fill it with fun, adventure and action.

Less than Perfect Appeal

Advertisements often try to influence people to make certain purchases by pointing out their inadequacies or making them feel less perfect and more dissatisfied with their present condition. These types of advertising appeals are used in cosmetic and health industries.

Romance Appeal

These advertisements display the attraction between the sexes. The appeal is used to signify that buying certain products will have  a positive impact on the opposite sex and improve your romantic or love life. Frangrances, automobiles and other products use these types of advertising appeals.

Emotional Words/Sensitivity Appeal

These advertisements are used to drive at and influence the sensitivities of consumers.

Youth Appeal

Advertisements that reflect youth giving aspects or ingredients of products use these types of appeals. Cosmetic products in particular make use of these appeals.


Celebrities and well known personalities often endorse certain products and their pitching can help drive the sales.

Play on Words

Advertisements also make effective use of catch phrases to convey the message. Such appeals help in brand recognition and recall and can be quite popular with the youth in particular.


Advertisements also use statistics and figures to display aspects of the product and its popularity in particular.

Plain Appeal

These advertisements use every day aspects of life and appeal to ordinary people regarding the use of a product or service.

Bandwagon Appeal

This type of advertising appeal is meant to signify that since everybody is doing something you should be a part of the crowd as well. It appeals towards the popularity aspect or coolness aspect of a person using a particular product or service.



Campaign Planning

What is Campaign?

—  A campaign can be defined as a uni-focus, short term communication program, making use of various mass media, aimed at a defined target audience.

—  In an advertising campaign, strategy is considered the most important part of the campaign. The pre campaign decisions were taken and  included in the strategy.

—  Since the campaign are cost intensive, it is important to plan to precision  to achieve the desired response

5W’s and 1H of campaign

—  Effective campaign must answer 5W’s and 1H:

  • Who: The target audience/segment or target market.
  • What: What is to be said to elicit the desired response. What to say? It includes the key communication proposition.
  • Where: Where our target audience located, wha media do they attend to. It include the media vehicals for the campaign.

—  Why: The objectives of the campaign, both advertising and marketing objectives.

—  When: It decides the timetable. Some products are all season, while other are seasonal. It includes the scheduling of the campaign.

—  How: The crucial strategy. It is the art and science of deploying available resources to attain objectives in the face of active competition. Strategy needs to cover both creative and media angle.

Planning an Advertising Campaign

—  The creation and execution of series of advertisement to communicate with the particular target audience.

—  Campaign advertising have similar logic they are like step brothers but not identical twins.

—  Advertising campaign is a process where the advertising plan is integrated to overall marketing plan and corporate plan.

General Steps in Developing and Implementing an Adv. Campaign:

  • Identify and Analyze Target Audience
  • Define Advertising Objectives
  • Create Advertising Problem
  • Determine Advertising Budget or Appropriation
  • Develop Media Plan
  • Create Advertisement Message
  • Executes Campaign
  • Evaluate Advertisement Effectiveness

q  Identifying and analyzing the Target Audience

Target audience is the group of people at whom advertisements are aimed.

a)      Location and geographical location,

b)      Distribution of demographic factors,

c)       Lifestyle Information,

d)      Consumer attitude.

q  Defining the advertising Objectives

What does the firm hope to accomplish the campaign?

a)      Objectives should be clear, precise and measurable,

b)      Increased sales (Units or dollar) or increased product or brand awareness.

q  Creating the advertising platform

–          Basic issues or selling points to be included in the advertising campaign.

–          Issues in the selection and use of the product that are important to consumers.

q  Determining the Budget Appropriation

–          Advertising budget for specific period.

It includes:

Geographic size of the market and distribution of the buyers within the market are important factors in determining the size of the budget.

Budget Approach/ Method Methodology
Objective and Task Determining advertising objectives and then calculating the cost of all the task needed to attain them.
Percent of Sales Multiplying the firm’s past and expected sales by a standard percentage based on what the firm has traditionally spend on adv. and the industry average for advertising spending.
Competition Matching Setting the adv. Budget to match competition spending on advertising.


Arbitrary Setting the advertising budget at a level of specified by a high level of executive in the firm.


q  Developing the Media Plan:

–          Specifies the media vehicles (eg: magazine, radio, T.V and N.P) and the schedule for running the adv.

–          Plan objectives focus on achieving the reach and frequency that the budget will allow.

a)      Reach: The percentage of consumers in a target market exposed to an advertisement in a specific period.

b)      Frequency: The no. of times targeted consumers are exposed to an adv. In a specific period.

  • Creating the advertisement message:


  • Product  features, Uses and Benefits
  • Characteristics of the target audience.
  • Advertising Campaign objectives and platforms
  • Choice of Media


q  Creating an advertising Message

–          Copy: the verbal portion of the advertisement.

a). It includes headlines, sub headlines, body copy and signature.

–          Copy Guidelines:

a)      Identify a specific desire or problem.

b)      Recommended the product as the best way to satisfy the identified desire or

c)       State product benefits.

d)      Substantiate the advertising claims.

e)      Ask the buyer to take actions.

–          Artwork

An advertisement illustrations and layout.

–          Illustrations

Photo, drawings, graph, charts and tables used to spark audience int. and for better understanding.

–          Layout

The physical arrangement of the adv. Illustrations and copy.


q  Executing the campaign:

–          Planning  and coordination.

–          Implementation

a)      Detailed schedule of campaign phases.

b)      Evaluation and corrective actions as necessary to make the campaign more effective.


Evaluating the campaign effectiveness:


Evaluation Assessment
Pretest Evaluation of ads performed before a campaign begins.
Consumer jury A panel of a product’s actual or potential buyers who pretest ads.
Post test Evaluation of advertising effectiveness after the campaign.
Recognition Test A post test in which respondents  are shown actual ads and asked if they recognize it.


Unaided Recall Test A post test in which respondent identify ads as they have recently seen but are given no recall clues.
Aided Recall Test A post test that asks respondents to identify the recent ads and provides clues to joy their memories.


q  Who develops the Advertising Campaign?

–          Individuals

–          Advertiser or Financer

–          Firm’s Advertising Department

–          Advertising Agency

They all develops the advertising campaign

—  Three phases of campaign creations:

  1. Strategy Development Phase: This state objectives and decide contents of communication and decide the positioning of the brand. Strategy is more important than creativity.

Adv brief to creativity: Job of company to give brief but usually they don’t do that, success of the adv depends on how well the co. has briefed the agency about strategy job of the co. is to tell what he wants to say, it is agency’s job to decide how to say.

  1. The creative phase: Creative people are brained people, they are involved from the inception to the commencement stage.






Structure of Advertising Agency

The Structure of an Advertising Agency

The basic organizational structure of a typical ad agency

Advertising agencies come in all shapes and sizes. Some are small boutique shops that have just a few people. Others are giants that employ thousands of people in offices all around the world.


But, however large or small the agency, there is a basic structure that most advertising agencies stick to. In the smaller agencies, some people will perform more than one role. One person my actually be the entire department. But the fundamentals are the same, and it’s because this model was born out of necessity and it works.


There are SIX major departments in any advertising agency. These can be split into other sub-departments, or given various creative names, but the skeleton is the same.


These departments are:


Account Service

Account Planning


Finance & Accounts

Media Buying



Larger agencies may also separate out the following departments:


Human Resources & Facilities


Web development



Let’s take a look at the breakdown of those six major departments.


Account Services


The account service department comprises account executives, account managers and account directors, and is responsible for liaising with the agency’s many clients. This department is the link between the many departments within the agency, and the clients who pay the bills. In the past they were referred to as “the suits,” and there have been many battles between the account services department and the creative department. But as most creatives know, a good account services team is essential to a good advertising campaign. A solid creative brief is one of the main duties of account services.


Account Planning


This department combines research with strategic thinking. Often a mix of researchers and account managers, the account planning department provides consumer insights, strategic direction, research, focus groups and assists helps keep advertising campaigns on target and on brand. Chris Cowpe described account planning as “…the discipline that brings the consumer into the process of developing advertising. To be truly effective, advertising must be both distinctive and relevant, and planning helps on both counts.”




This is the engine of any advertising agency. It’s the lifeblood of the business, because the creative department is responsible for the product. And an ad agency is only as good as the ads the creative department puts out. The roles within the creative department are many and varied, and usually include:



Art Directors


Production Artists

Web Designers

Associate Creative Directors

Creative Director(s)


In many agencies, copywriters and art directors are paired up, working as teams. They will also bring in the talents of other designers and production artists as and when the job requires it. Sometimes, traffic is handled by a position within the creative department, although that is usually part of the production department. Everyone within creative services reports to the Creative Director. It is his or her role to steer the creative product, making sure it is on brand, on brief and on time.


Finance & Accounts


Money. At the end of the day, that’s what ad agencies want. And it’s what their clients want, too. At the center of all the money coming into, and going out of, the agency is the finance and accounts department. This department is responsible for handling payment of salaries, benefits, vendor costs, travel, day-to-day business costs and everything else you’d expect from doing business. It’s been said that approximately 70% of an ad agency’s income pays salary and benefits to employees. However, this figure varies depending on the size and success of the agency in question.


Media Buying


It is the function of the media buying department to procure the advertising time and/or space required for a successful advertising campaign. This includes TV and radio time, outdoor (billboards, posters, guerrilla), magazine and newspaper insertions, internet banners and takeovers, and, well, anywhere else an ad can be placed for a fee. This usually involves close collaboration with the creative department who came up with the initial ideas, as well as the client and the kind of exposure they want.This department is usually steered by a media director.




Ideas are just ideas until they’re made real. This is the job of the production department. During the creative process, the production department will be consulted to talk about the feasibility of executing certain ideas. Once the ad is sold to the client, the creative and account teams will collaborate with production to get the campaign produced on budget. This can be anything from getting original photography or illustration produced, working with printers, hiring typographers and TV directors, and a myriad of other disciplines needed to get an ad campaign published. Production also works closely with the media department, who will supply the specs and deadlines for the jobs.


In small to mid-sized agencies, traffic is also a part of the production department. It is the job of traffic to get each and every job through the various stages of account management, creative development, media buying and production in a set timeframe. Traffic will also ensure that work flows through the agency smoothly, preventing jams that may overwhelm creative teams and lead to very long hours, missed deadlines and problematic client relationships. Traffic keeps the agency’s heart beating.


Organizational structure of advertising agency


Advertising agency must have a suitable internal organizational structure to keep functioning properly with a smooth workflow.


When an advertising agency decides to establish its organizational structure, it must ask itself important questions like:


What is the suitability and/or requirement of a department?

How the span of control should be within an agency?

Is there any mechanism or provision to make communication and coordination more effective within an agency? So on.


All advertising agencies don’t have a same organizational structure. Their structure varies from one agency to another. It is so, since, all organizations are unique and their objectives, requirements, functional areas and specialized departments are not common.

The main functional departments of advertising agency:


Contact department,

Media department,

Copy department,

Art department,

production department

Research department,

Accounting and finance department,

Public relations department and

Office management.


Now let’s discuss these important functional departments of an advertising agency along with specialized-functions assigned to them.


1. Contact department


contact department of advertising agency


Contact department of advertising agency keeps contact with their prospective clients, who are mostly advertisers.


The functions of contact department are as follows:


Contact department supplies necessary information to the clients.

It tries to increase and retain the number of clients of agency.

It brings new clients to the agency which is crucial for increasing revenue, expansion and growth.

It acts as a liaison authority (connection) between the advertising agency and its clients.

It acts as a sales promotion department of the ad agency.

It finds out new clients and promotes the business of agency.


The contact department of ad agency comes under accounting services. Account Executive is the head of it.


Efficient working of this department results in quick growth of ad agency.

2. Media department


media department of advertising agency


Media department of advertising agency selects the best-media for advertising the products of the clients.


While selecting a media for advertising it must consider the following:


Nature of the product,

Competition in the market,

Advertising budget of the client,

Media trends, etc.


The functions of media department are as follows:


Select and use the best media possible to communicate the ad message to the consumers. This is very important function because a wrong selection will result in the failure of product.

Prepare a media plan for clients.

Media scheduling.

Supervise the execution of the schedule.

Buy or book an advertising time and space in media for client.

Keep contact with various media.


Media department of ad agency comes under marketing services.


3. Copy department


copy department of advertising agency


The main function of a copy department of advertising agency is to prepare an attractive copy-of-ad.


The copy of advertisement is very crucial. It is called the Heart of the AD. It is so, since it directly communicates the ad-message to the consumers.


The staff of this department includes copywriters, copy-supervisors, and others. They use their talent of imagination, skill of putting flair and fluent language while preparing a copy.


The advertising will be a failure if the copy is not appealing to consumers. The copy-staff works in close co-operation with the staff of the art and visualization branch.


The head of copy department is a Copy Chief. He directs the functioning of it.


The copy branch is perhaps the largest department of ad agency. It comprises of a hard-working team of qualified professionals and experienced staff.


Some agencies have a creative branch instead of it that does the entire work of preparing an advertisement. Here, preparing an ad copy, artwork and actual production of ad are all linked together and executed completely by this department alone.


4. Art department


art department of advertising agency


Art department of advertising agency uses the power of creativity and to make ad more appealing and agreeable. Its activity is not a mechanical one. It uses the principles of real art (that works) as a guideline or base to present a product to the targeted audience.


Generally, the art department carries out following work:


Transform the ad-message into a self-communicating and mind-stimulating imagery.

Prepare visuals and layouts for press advertisement.

Make painted bulletins, posters, car cards, illustrations, slogans, etc.


Art Director heads this department of ad agency. He is assisted by an assistant-art director, artists, visualizers and layout men.


The artists of art department work together with copywriters to make the final copy of advertisement more attractive.


Both departments of art and copy operates under the overall guidance and supervision of vice-president of creative services.


Not all ad agencies have a separate art department. Some prefer to outsource their art-related work to freelance artists.


5. Production department


production department of advertising agency


The copy of advertisement is finalized by artists and copywriters. It is then sent to the production department of an advertising agency for its further processing.


As the copy reaches this department, its proper mechanical production begins.


The main role of a production department is to process & produce a final ad.


This department’s traditional work activities usually are as follows:


Keep in contact with printing press, typographers, photo engravers, etc.

Assemble the typographic design patterns, engraved photos, illustrations, copy, etc. and prepare the final advertisement.

Show it to the client (advertiser) and get his approval for its release.

Send it (after approval) to print media like magazines, newspapers, etc. for advertising.


With advancements in technology, the use of print media is gradually slowly down. The digital media is now an emerging trend. As a result, some production houses have started adapting to this change. Now their work also includes activities like:


Keep in contact with digital artists, web designers, etc.

Assemble the work of digital art and prepare a final digital-ad.

Seek approval of it from an advertiser.

Send it (after approval) to digital media like the Internet, e-magazines, web videos, etc. mainly for online advertising.


This department is headed by a production manager.


Production department of ad agency comes under creative services.


Not all ad agencies have a separate production department. Some prefer to outsource their production-related work to others.


6. Research department


The success of an advertising agency greatly depends on the success of the client’s ad campaign. Today, achieving success is not an easier task. It is getting very difficult now-a-days because of rising market competition. With so many alternatives and choices at hand, already well-established goodwill and trust on older brands, it is now tougher to attract and convince consumers. However, against all odds hope still exists.


To stand out from the plethora of availability and make the client’s products and/or services attractive, needs not only huge amount of tedious work but also some good amount of research to begin with.


One must remember that without knowing, What to do? How to do? When to do? And where to do? Nothing can be achieved. However, with right direction and approach, everything can be made possible.


Therefore, the importance of research department in advertising is rising.


research department of advertising agency


The main function of research department of advertising agency is to:


Carry out research and obtain the necessary information.

Engage in a rigorous and critical analysis of the obtained information.

Use the findings (results) in different ways to achieving objectives.


Generally, this department collects information about:



Market competition,

Market trends,

Products and/or services,


Consumer behavior,

Media trends,

New trends in advertising, so on.


Agency makes use of above information for executing a good ad campaign.


The team of a typical research department usually comprises of:



Field workers,


Marketing assistants,


Librarian and the staff of library, etc.


This team works under the guidance and direction a Research Director, who is the head of research department.


Research department comes under marketing services of ad agency.


Although research activities are highly beneficial, they do consume an ample amount of time, money and resources. Generally, small ad agencies can’t afford such resource-intense activities and therefore, prefer not to keep a separate research-branch. They either do research on a smaller scale or use the data obtained by others. On its contrary, large-agencies prefer to maintain their own research-subsidiaries and don’t take the risk compromising with the quality and genuineness of the obtained data.


7. Accounting and finance department


accounting and finance department of advertising agency


The main duty of accounting and finance department of advertising agency is to look after its financial and accounting matters.


The work activity of this department is usually as follows:


Generate or raise invoices (bills) on clients (parties).

Send regular reminder to the client for collection of unpaid dues.

Book the expenses of vendor parties on a timely basis.

Issue payments to vendor parties within or on the due date.

Doing reconciliation (compare) of banks, vendors and customers’ ledger accounts regularly.

Deposit government dues on a timely basis in authorized banks.


The main staff of this department usually comprises of:


Chief financial officer (CFO),

Accounts receivable manager,

Accounts payable manager,

Accounts supervisors and

Accounts executives.


This staff works under the guidance and supervision of vice-president of accounting services. He is the head of this department.


8. Public relations department


public relations department of advertising agency


The main responsibility of a public relations (PR) department is to maintain cordial relationship between advertising agency, clients and media.


Generally, the PR department carries out following work:


Address the complaints of the customers.

Solve their complaints as soon as possible.

Be a link between ad-agency, clients, media and society.

Create goodwill and maintain the reputation of ad agency.


Public Relations Officer (PRO) is the head of this department, and his subordinates assist him regularly to maintain a cordial environment.


The PR department functions under the authority of management.


9. Office Management


office management


The definition of office management according to Mills and Standingford,


“The art of guiding the personnel of the office in the use of materials, methods, machines and equipment appropriate to their environment in order to achieve its specified purpose.”


Generally, office management involves following important activities:


Recruit office staff.

Training and development of new joined staff.

Promotion of an existing staff.

Transfer of a timely salary and perquisites (perks) to staff.

Providing welfare facilities to staff.

Correspondence to various internal and external parties.

Filing and record keeping of all the important documents.


Office-management of advertising agency operates under its management services.

Advertising Layout

Advertising Layout

Master plan or blueprint of a printed or published work (such as an advertisement, book, magazine, newspaper, or website) that lays out the arrangement of its different graphic elements (such as body copy, colors, headlines, illustrations, scale). It establishes the overall appearance, relative importance, and relationships between the graphic elements to achieve a smooth flow of information (message) and eye movement for maximum effectiveness or impact. Often alternative layouts (called roughs) are prepared to explore different arrangements before the final layout is made for printing or production.

Advertising layout definition is the design or final arrangement of something that is laid out and waiting to be reproduced especially by printing e.g advertisement, magazine book etc. It lays out several graphic elements e.g color, body, headlines and establishes the overall appearance and importance and are usually prepared to explore different arrangements before the final layout.


Components of a Good Ad Layout

1. Border.

How do we separate the ad from the surrounding type?—with a border. Borders should complement the look that you are developing with your ad and should never be the most prominent part of  your ad. Straightforward and simple is best.

2. Heading.

Ad legend David Ogilvy stated once that “The headline is a key part of the sales message;  no matter how well the ad is presented, it can’t succeed if it is not read. If your headline does not include a selling message, you may be wasting 80 percent of your dollars.” Following the headline, you’ll have subheads that either clarify or amplify the thought in the headline. Subheads should be handled in much the same way as headlines, but are visually weighted somewhere between the body copy and the heading.

3. Illustrations.

A highly effective way to draw the reader’s attention to an ad is with the illustration. Studies have shown that an ad with an illustration that takes up 50 percent or more of the ad space increases readership by as much as 37 percent.

4. Price

– Price is an important (and often dominant) element in a layout. Many local advertisers build their ads around the price. You can accent price in several ways: (1) as part of the heading, (2) the core the ad is built around, (3) preceding the copy, and (4) in the text space.

5. White space.

Use as much white space as you can afford to use. It minimizes distraction and draws attention to what matters most.

6. Body copy

Body copy expands benefits offered in the headline. The power of well written advertising copy is proven by the billions of dollars of sales directly resulted from great newspaper advertising. Benefits should be written as though you were making friendly, personal conversation.

7. Signature

The signature is often a logotype. Though often used synonymously with logo, signature means the name of the advertiser in any form, and unlike the logo, may change form from one ad to the next. Remember not to let the signature overpower other important aspects.

8. The one second test

The one second test is a way of determining whether a reader can tell at a glance what the advertiser is selling. You should be able to look at a layout for a second, then close your eyes and recall its sales message. If you didn’t get the message, you need to improve the layout. Another factor that affects eye appeal is concentration, grouping your selling points into display headings and text masses.

9. Color

Try to achieve contrast in layout by effective use of different size type, bold type and color. If you can, try to fit color into your advertising budget. Introducing color increases impact.

10. Creativity

Simplicity, focal point and sequence in mind, will be appealing to the eye. However, some ads are more visually appealing than others. The difference is in creativity.

11. Composition

Although professionals often disagree among themselves on the specifics of composition, they seem to have an instinctive appreciation of good composition and an aversion to bad composition.

1.   Ideally, the picture should occupy slightly more than one-half of the entire space.  If there are several illustrations, the total area of all of them combined should occupy that amount of space.  This rule is especially important in beauty, style, and appetite-appeal advertisements.  Recall is also higher when the advertisement is in colour and when photos were used instead of drawings or paintings.


2. In most print advertisements the headline occupies about 10 to 15 percent of the total area.  In general it works best to place the headline below the illustration and above the copy.


However, if the words relate primarily to the picture and make a complete statement, then placing them above seems reasonable.  However, if the headline leads into the copy, it should appear below.


If the main head is placed above the illustration, it is often helpful to include a subhead under the illustration to lead the reader into the text.


3.  Unless the name of the product is prominently displayed in the headline or shown in the illustration, the logotype should be emphasised and put in a prominent setting.  Size, contract, or isolation may be used to emphasise a logotype or illustration of the package.


4.  Repetition of the same motifs helps unify an advertising layout.  A natural affinity between masses or overlapping helps to keep an ad from falling apart.


5. Typographical consistency reassures readers that they are looking at one ad, not several.



The word “balance” is occasionally misused in reference to advertising layout.  Some believe that it connotes absolute symmetry.  Actually, flawless equilibrium can be boring to the human eye because there is nothing unexpected about it.  Symmetrical balance is formal balance and is used most where dignity or stability is dominant.


An advertisement is balanced when it looks balanced.  The optical centre of an advertisement is at a point about five-eights of the way up the page.  A way to test this is to take a sheet of blank paper and point to its centre.  You will find that you normally point above the actual geometric centre.


If one side of the ad seems to light, you can add “weight” in several ways.  One is to darken that side or to change type size.  Another is to move elements from the light side away from the centre or use brighter colours and thus make them appear heavier.




Every advertisement should move the eye naturally from one element to the next.  Readers are likely to focus first above and to the left of centre and then roam around the page.  But their eye movements can be controlled by skilful manipulation of the elements.  Some of the more common devices follow.


1.  Gaze motion  Studies show that eyes direct other eyes.  There is a natural tendency to follow the gaze of people or animals in illustrations.


2.  Size     Most people are attracted by the largest and most dominant matter on the page.


3.  Pointing devices  These include hands, arrows, rectangles, triangles, or lines of type.


4.  Cartoons or pictures with captions  The reader must start at the beginning and follow the sequence to get the point.


5.   Gutters of white space These are areas between dark masses of type or illustrative material.  The contract and arrangement between these and the darker background directs eye movement.


The ancient Greeks knew that two areas are more pleasing to the eye if one is slightly larger than the other.  It is more appealing to have masses of space in such proportions as three to four or two to three.  These are less monotonous than equal masses.


One way to emphasise a particular element in a headline or illustration is by contrast.  Dark masses stand out against a light background, as does almost any illustration that is surrounded by a sea of white space.  Well- devised contrast emphasises what you want emphasised by making it dominate.  You should not, however, sacrifice legibility for the sake of contrast.


Simplicity sounds deceptively easy to achieve.  The temptation to overload an advertisement is so great that many ads become far too complex.  Some advertisers believe they are getting more for their money by adding elements, but the opposite is often true.

A layout is simplified when you keep down the number of different typefaces and make sure the illustrations are harmonious.  Avoid decorations that seem “cute” but add little.  A good test is to ask yourself if each element helps communicate the message.  If it doesn’t, eliminate the element.


It is up to the layout artist to make sure that the visual and verbal elements work together to achieve the creative objectives.  It is particularly difficult for the artist to present ideas clearly when faced with a large number of elements (as is often the case in retail advertisements).  One possibility for arranging several elements is the layout based on such letters as “S” or “T” or in a pyramid pattern.

It is often tempting to try layout stunts or add arrangements as a means of attracting attention.  Unless these are relevant to the objective, they are likely to do more harm than good.  Graphic trickery is particularly dangerous in business-to-business advertising.

The various stages in preparing layouts.

Thumbnail Sketch

Most artists begin by making several thumbnail sketches, or miniature rough sketches, of possible layouts.  Ordinarily these rough sketches are one-eighth to one-fourth the size of the final product.  A thumbnail sketch offers artists an opportunity to try out a variety of ideas; later they can select the most promising ones and blow them up to actual size.  Where format remains much the same from one advertisement to the next, there is little need to make thumbnail sketches.

Rough Layout

The rough layout will be the exact size of the final advertisement.  For example, if the advertisement is to occupy a full page in the Bulletin.  This is the standard size of the type page, not the size of the entire page. By paying an extra 15 percent an advertiser may purchase the entire, or “bleed,” page (the ad “bleeds” to the outside edges of the paper).

Some artists make many roughs, others only a few.  Some layouts are sent to the printer or to newspapers in very rough form, depending on how much service the media provide.  In a rough, headlines are often hastily lettered in and body test indicated only in pencil.  Those layouts in more final shape can be used to help all concerned visualise which of several alternatives provides the greatest promise of success:-

1.         Initial layout sketch

2.         Photograph of product with open space for insertion of art and copy.

3.         Airbrush art and photography that will be combined

4.         Assembled advertisement .  All elements are combined including type.  At this stage the board also shows corner crop marks and instructions for colour separations and printing.

Finished Layout

When a selection has been made among alternative roughs, the “finished” layout can be composed.  The artist may complete this layout or may instruct a commercial studio to do it.  The illustration, lettering and the logotype will be drawn the way they are to appear in the final advertisement.  The test will be indicated by lines neatly rules in blocks of varying lengths to simulate paragraphs.  A finished layout, then, is almost a facsimile of the finished advertisement.


When the finished layout is carried one step further, the comprehensive, or comp, is the result.  If, for example, the illustration is to be a painting or a drawing, the artist will probably be asked to make the final illustration for the comprehensive.  The type will be set and a proof of it pasted on the layout.  In the case of a brochure, this will be a multipage layout having the same number of pages as the final product.  The comprehensive must be painstakingly put together to look like the final product.

Obviously, the size and shape of given space will influence an artist’s layout decisions.  Small-space layouts present special problems.  Options are to keep the ad simple and avoid crowding too many elements in the space or to use an unusual arrangement to attract attention.


TV Camera Shots


The camera works on the principal of human eye and it shows what all the human eye watches through its lens. The eye retains the image for 1/16 second while the camera works at the speed of 25 frames per second and that’s why the fractions of frames or pictures seem to be moving on the screen.


Camera functions

The camera can be utilized as per the requirement of the shot, situation of the programs and the mood of the scene. There are following camera functions generally used in television productions.


Movement of lens of camera

During this technique only lens of the camera is moved

Zoom in

Image coming close to viewer

Zoom out

Image going away from the viewer


Image becoming sharp


Image getting blur

Movement of camera itself

During this technique camera it is moved

Pan right

Camera is moved towards right side

Pan left

Camera is moved towards left side

Tilt up

Camera is moved upwards

Tilt down

Camera is moved downwards

Movement of camera with tripod


During this technique the camera is moved with the pedestal or tripod leaving its place as well.


Dolly in

Camera is moved close to the object

Dolly out

Camera is moved away from the object

Track right

Camera is moved to the right side of the object

Track left

Camera is moved to the left side of the object

Use of crane

This is an arrangement of making a cameraman sit on equipment like crane to make free movement over a crowd especially used in music show, concerts awards ceremonies.

Use of jib

This is an arrangement of making a camera placed on equipment like triangular stay sail set to make free movement of the camera itself while the operator is on ground controlling the camera.

Use of wide-angle lens

It is used when there is a small space available for the movement of camera. It gives the broader perspective of the shot.


Use of fish-eye lens

It is used to create dramatic effect of the situation and to show the panoramic view of the scene.


The frame being captured through the camera lens is called shot. It’s the picture being photographed or scene being recorded.


Camera Techniques: Distance and Angle


Long shot (LS): Shot which shows all or most of a fairly large subject (for example, a person) and usually much of the surroundings. Extreme Long Shot (ELS) – see establishing shot: In this type of shot the camera is at its furthest distance from the subject, emphasizing the background. Medium Long Shot (MLS): In the case of a standing actor, the lower frame line cuts off his feet and ankles. Some documentaries with social themes favor keeping people in the longer shots, keeping social circumstances rather than the individual as the focus of attention.

Establishing shot: Opening shot or sequence, frequently an exterior ‘General View’ as an Extreme Long Shot (ELS). Used to set the scene.

Medium shots: Medium Shot or Mid-Shot (MS). In such a shot the subject or actorangles and its setting occupy roughly equal areas in the frame. In the case of the standing actor, the lower frame passes through the waist. There is space for hand gestures to be seen. Medium Close Shot (MCS): The setting can still be seen. The lower frame line passes through the chest of the actor. Medium shots are frequently used for the tight presentation of two actors (the two shot), or with dexterity three (the three shot).

Close-up (CU): A picture which shows a fairly small part of the scene, such as a character’s face, in great detail so that it fills the screen. It abstracts the subject from a context. MCU (Medium Close-Up): head and shoulders. BCU (Big Close-Up): forehead to chin. Close-ups focus attention on a person’s feelings or reactions, and are sometimes used in interviews to show people in a state of emotional excitement, grief or joy. In interviews, the use of BCUs may emphasize the interviewee’s tension and suggest lying or guilt. BCUs are rarely used for important public figures; MCUs are preferred, the camera providing a sense of distance. Note that in western cultures the space within about 24 inches (60 cm) is generally felt to be private space, and BCUs may be invasive.


Angle of shot: The direction and height from which the camera takes the scene. The convention is that in ‘factual’ programs subjects should be shot from eye-level only. In a high angle the camera looks down at a character, making the viewer feel more powerful than him or her, or suggesting an air of detachment. A low angle shot places camera below the character, exaggerating his or her importance. An overhead shot is one made from a position directly above the action.

Viewpoint: The apparent distance and angle from which the camera views and records the subject. Not to be confused with point-of-view shots or subjective camera shots.

Point-of-view shot (POV): A shot made from a camera position close to the line of sight of a performer who is to be watching the action shown in the point-of-view shot.

Two-shot: A shot of two people together.

Selective focus: Rendering only part of the action field in sharp focus through the use of a shallow depth of field. A shift of focus from foreground to background or vice versa is called rack focus.

Soft focus: An effect in which the sharpness of an image, or part of it, is reduced by the use of an optical device.

Wide-angle shot: A shot of a broad field of action taken with a wide-angle lens.

Tilted shot: When the camera is tilted on its axis so that normally vertical lines appear slanted to the left or right, ordinary expectations are frustrated. Such shots are often used in mystery and suspense films to create a sense of unease in the viewer.

Camera Techniques: Movement
Zoom. In zooming in the camera does not move; the lens is focused down from a long-shot to a close-up whilst the picture is still being shown. The subject is magnified, and attention is concentrated on details previously invisible as the shot tightens (contrast tracking). It may be used to surprise the viewer. Zooming out reveals more of the scene (perhaps where a character is, or to whom he or she is speaking) as the shot widens. Zooming in rapidly brings not only the subject but also the background hurtling towards the viewer, which can be disconcerting. Zooming in and then out creates an ugly ‘yo-yo’ effect.

Following pan: The camera swivels (in the same base position) to follow a moving subject. A space is left in front of the subject: the pan ‘leads’ rather than ‘trails’. A pan usually begins and ends with a few seconds of still picture to give greater impact. The speed of a pan across a subject creates a particular mood as well as establishing the viewer’s relationship with the subject. ‘Hosepiping’ is continually panning across from one person to another; it looks clumsy.

Surveying pan: The camera slowly searches the scene: may build to a climax or anticlimax.

Tilt: A vertical movement of the camera – up or down- while the camera mounting stays fixed.

Crab: The camera moves (crabs) right or left.

Tracking (dollying): Tracking involves the camera itself being moved smoothly towards or away from the subject (contrast with zooming). Tracking in (like zooming) draws the viewer into a closer, more intense relationship with the subject; moving away tends to create emotional distance. Tracking back tends to divert attention to the edges of the screen. The speed of tracking may affect the viewer’s mood. Rapid tracking (especially tracking in) is exciting; tracking back relaxes interest. In a dramatic narrative we may sometimes be drawn forward towards a subject against our will. Camera movement parallel to a moving subject permits speed without drawing attention to the camera itself.

Hand-held camera: A hand-held camera can produce a jerky, bouncy, unsteady image which may create a sense of immediacy or chaos. Its use is a form of subjective treatment.

Process shot: A shot made of action in front of a rear projection screen having on it still or moving images as a background.




Point of View Shot:
This shows the view point of an actor. You can usually see the actor’s feet or hands in the picture so that you know straight away what sort of shot it is. It is sometimes used in films to show someone’s eyesight as blurry, if they are becoming uncurious.

Over the Shoulder:
Taken from behind a subject to see someone else. It is sometimes used in dramas to show someone’s facial expression. It is more commonly used for when two people are having a conversation.


Two Shot:
A two shot is mostly used in TV dramas w here it shows friends side by side. However it can also be used show relationships. The main purpose of this shot is for the audience to see what sort of relationship the characters have between them.


Wide Shot:
This shot is commonly used to show a target and a large setting behind them. The main point of this shot is to try to see the setting more than the target. Moreover it is also used to see large distances.




Medium Shot:
A medium shot is usually from the targets head down to his or her torso. This is to show the targets body as well as their face. This type of shot is often used in magazines.



Long Shot:
Takes a picture from a distance, it shows a whole setting. It could be used to show a full scene or an actors’ full body.



Aerial Shot:
A view from above, it could be a place or a scene for a movie. It shows everything that is happening from a birds’ eye view. It shows the audience everything that is happening at once. A crane shot is used to achieve this type of shot.



Eye Level:
An eye level angle shows the object of the picture looking directly at you, this show that he or she has the same amount of power as you. However in some magazines it is used to show sexual tension when it is used with models.



“221 B BAKER STREET” The most famous address in the world!


“Consulting detective… Highly Functioning Sociopath..?” What comes to your mind when you hear such astoundingly ingenious words? How about imagining the one with such traits!!?

–          “Stop it! You are thinking! And it’s disturbing!!”

First appearing in 1887 by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes is the resourceful, dynamic, enigmatic, the true master of deduction & world’s only Consulting Detective!Image

He would listen to your case if it’s interesting and pick it up only if its food for his brains!

Sherlock’s recent most successful comeback on BBC One’s “Sherlock” became UK’s most watched drama series since 2001! Mark Gatiss & Steven Moffat have filled in the gaps of Sir Arthur’s Sherlock Adventures and have made it remarkably baffling, exquisite & worthy to crave for.
“The Sherlock Android App also runs the countdown to its next show, which is “259 Days & 45 minutes” i.e. The Christmas!”

Sherlock BBC has added true colors of modern day technologies and holographic sort attachment to the story by adding the real “Science of Deduction” website by Sherlock Holmes and “The Blog of Dr. John  H. Watson”. Both include everything discussed in their episodes while John is often shown updating his blog! Needless, I believe to explain who Dr. John is? Right?

–          “Sarcasm is the lowest form of wit!”

Commiserations, I disagree! Alright, so there is this guy who wants to see “the superhuman façade crack a little”; the rogue of the story, Jim Moriarty.

Others in lead are ‘Mycroft Holmes’ occupying a small space in British Government where he gets to recommend Sherlock to solve cases with Metropolitan Police, Scotland Yard & privately for Government!

Molly Hooper the pathologist, Detective Inspector Greg Lestrade, Mrs. Hudson and The Woman Irene Adler believing to make Sherlock beg for mercy twice!

Putting his bell in the fridge for making too much ringing noise, eating one Quaver Crisps for a lunch as Digestion rots his brain, Silence is the marvelous thing he wants and the list continues!

One minute, 10 Downing Street? NO! 221 B Baker Street, London! Yes, Sherlock Holmes & Dr. John Hamish Watson. Escapade Begins again in the 4th most anticipated season!

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