“221 B BAKER STREET” The most famous address in the world!

 

“Consulting detective… Highly Functioning Sociopath..?” What comes to your mind when you hear such astoundingly ingenious words? How about imagining the one with such traits!!?

-          “Stop it! You are thinking! And it’s disturbing!!”

First appearing in 1887 by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes is the resourceful, dynamic, enigmatic, the true master of deduction & world’s only Consulting Detective!Image

He would listen to your case if it’s interesting and pick it up only if its food for his brains!

Sherlock’s recent most successful comeback on BBC One’s “Sherlock” became UK’s most watched drama series since 2001! Mark Gatiss & Steven Moffat have filled in the gaps of Sir Arthur’s Sherlock Adventures and have made it remarkably baffling, exquisite & worthy to crave for.
“The Sherlock Android App also runs the countdown to its next show, which is “259 Days & 45 minutes” i.e. The Christmas!”

Sherlock BBC has added true colors of modern day technologies and holographic sort attachment to the story by adding the real “Science of Deduction” website by Sherlock Holmes and “The Blog of Dr. John  H. Watson”. Both include everything discussed in their episodes while John is often shown updating his blog! Needless, I believe to explain who Dr. John is? Right?

-          “Sarcasm is the lowest form of wit!”

Commiserations, I disagree! Alright, so there is this guy who wants to see “the superhuman façade crack a little”; the rogue of the story, Jim Moriarty.

Others in lead are ‘Mycroft Holmes’ occupying a small space in British Government where he gets to recommend Sherlock to solve cases with Metropolitan Police, Scotland Yard & privately for Government!

Molly Hooper the pathologist, Detective Inspector Greg Lestrade, Mrs. Hudson and The Woman Irene Adler believing to make Sherlock beg for mercy twice!

Putting his bell in the fridge for making too much ringing noise, eating one Quaver Crisps for a lunch as Digestion rots his brain, Silence is the marvelous thing he wants and the list continues!

One minute, 10 Downing Street? NO! 221 B Baker Street, London! Yes, Sherlock Holmes & Dr. John Hamish Watson. Escapade Begins again in the 4th most anticipated season!

Important Links:
Http://thescienceofdeduction.co.uk
Http://johnwatsonblog.co.uk
Http://sherlockology.com

Revival through A Review of Life!

Life is all about dealing with changes around you. Sometimes You and Sometimes others change, the faster you accept the better you become at it. 
Life would be so much better if we take the needed steps when required, stand up for rights and understand our duties. 
And above all we should know how to be lenient to our family members more than to our friends. “Family stays, live betterfriends leave and move on; life goes on.” 
Posting all good on Facebook, Twitter and doing all lovy-dovy chit-chat with your friends while you ignore them when you see them somewhere in a mall shopping as if you didn’t see or you were too liberal to interrupt into their hanging out stuff. 


We belong to a society, a culture that is a conservative one and will always remain, adding to it, conservative nowhere in the world means being narrow minded. It is all about securing your culture with acts you do. Shaping your mind to what it should be so as to keep things alive as they had always been.
At this hour of night, when i am done watching a movie making some notes, realizing how life works and changes. You were in a no time a High School student and you realize you are now into Masters, your friends who were with you that time are into their final year Medical, Engineering. “Life lets you grow up, mind stays the same.” Your face starts looking older, but you are not believing the facts.
Life is so much big, easy if you know how to live your own and difficult when you compare it with others. 

Managing Stress

Here is a psychological review about managing stress. Stress is by far one of the most common causes of diseases that a human suffers from. Straight away, I will come to the point that stress can easily be managed through positive handling.

Life seems to be a bit tricky at times which results in a situation bound to cause stress. Some people easily manage stress while others have a hard time getting through it. Those who can easily overcome it are the ones who perform better in stressful conditions and they are no different from us. It is just that they learn how to manage stress effectively. If you are well aware of the skills to manage stress, then you are not too far from a happy life.

stress

 

Why is it so important to manage stress?

Stress is the root cause of all major illnesses suffered by humans such as heart attacks, strokes etc. It has been found in a survey that 75% – 95% of all doctor visits are stress related. Stress leads to low work performance, insomnia, losing attention, depression, addiction and many other undesirable results. If it is not treated well, it may even cause  mental illness.

There are many people who respond well to stress and know how to manage it and avoid unnecessary anxiety. Psychologists label  them as ‘peak performers’.

 Practise the following steps to decrease stress from your life:

Boost your energy and center of attention.
Deal well with authority, social roles, and confines.
Increase your tolerance towards aggravation during intricate situations.
Familiarize yourself to change and thrive from it.
Show ease, care, and love.
Enjoy leisure time.
Relax yourself and sleep better.
Express a reasonable sense of self

The most important step in managing stress is to feel  your existence, you live. Take things easy, do not panic. Believe that you are not the only one to face problems. Look beyond your limits and believe in yourself. Believe that you are much better than millions of people on this earth. Remember Allah is there to bless you in every step of life.

Psychologists believe that there is a very complex connection between a human mind and his body, which  leads to many stress related problems. Nowadays, medical science is trying to heal stress problems by following:

  • Medications: Doctors give antidepressants and drugs to control blood pressure.
  • Stress Management Course: These solve stress problems which are related to job or workplace. They basically analyze the roll of the stressor in a patient’s life.
  • Behavioral Management: These are strategies which include relaxation techniques, breathing exercises (like breathing in from one nostril and breathing out from the other), and physical exercise programs including brisk walks.
  • Massage: There are numerous spas in the country now, to relieve you of the stress you have accumulated over a certain period of time. Different types of massages are given to different types of patients. It relieves and is the most helpful in times of stress.
  • Cognitive Therapy: It allows patients to re-analyze the whole stress situation and reframe it;. rebuild the image of stressor and  modify physical reactions and behaviors towards them.

If you want to live a healthy life, you need to stress things out, Identify the stress sources and identify how you usually cope with stress. Do you smoke, drink, overeat, under eat, sleep too much, get angry with others, use pills to relax, watch TV for hours? Then learn healthier ways to manage stress, as I have described above. Either change the situation or change your reaction. Avoid the stressor and alter the stressor or adapt to the stressor and accept the stressor. Avoid unnecessary stress; learn how to say “No”. Change your routine, put in some fun, some healthy ways to relax and recharge. Adapt a healthy lifestyle, exercise regularly, eat healthy diet, reduce caffeine and sugar, and get enough sleep.

British House of Commons

British House of Commons.

British Constitutional Law LLB Part One Outline Notes

This Outline Notes covers all topics mentioned in LLB Part 1 British Constitution Syllabus.
Topic 1
Salient Features of British Constitution:

  1. Definition of Constitution
  2. Mother of Constitution
  3. Organic Growth
  4. Evolutionary Nature
  5. Unwritten & Non Codified
  6. Partly Written
  7. Conventions
  8. Bicameral Parliament
  9. House of Commons
  10. House of Lords
  11. Prime Minister
  12. Monarch
  13. Cabinet former Privy Council
  14. Parliamentary Sovereignty
  15. Unitary
  16. Flexibility
  17. Independence of Judiciary
  18. Disparity between theory and existence
  19. Unreality
  20. Conservativeness
  21. Adjustability
  22. Peaceful transition
  23. Rule of law
  24. Rights of citizens
  25. Merger of powers
  26. Blended constitution
  27. Age of majority
  28. Political Parties
  29. Specimen of development and Continuance
  30. Conclusion

 

Topic Number 2
Sources of Law

  1. Introduction
  2. Common Law
  3. Conventions
  4. Conventions relating to Parliament
  5. Conventions relating to Cabinet
  6. Conventions relating to Crown
  7. Jurist opinions
  8. Parliamentary Acts
  9. Judicial Precedents
  10. Prerogatives of Crown
  11. Work of authority
  12. Work of theorist
  13. European union laws
  14. Magna Carta
  15. Historical Charters
  16. Treaties
  17. Parliamentary Acts of 1911 & 1949
  18. House of Lords Reform Act
  19. Howell’s Case 1678
  20. Bushell’s Case 1670
  21. Treaty: Ireland & Scotland
  22. Conclusions

Topic Number 3
Supremacy of Parliament

  1. Introduction of Supremacy
  2. Introduction of British Parliament
  3. Supremacy of British Parliament
  4. Positive aspects
  5. Negative aspects
  6. Bill of Rights 1689
  7. Act of Indemnity 1766
  8. Septennial Act 1716
  9. Act of Union with Scotland & Ireland
  10. Act of Settlement
  11. Acts of Parliament 1911 & 1949
  12. Magna Carta
  13. Limitation by Rule of Law
  14. Limitation by Statutory Law
  15. Limitation by European Union Laws
  16. Limitation by Judicial Precedents
  17. Alleged limitation by preceding Acts
  18. Alleged Limitation by Royal Prerogatives
  19. Alleged limitation by moral law
  20. Actual limitation by Public
  21. Conclusion

Topic Number 4

Conventions

  1. Introduction
  2. Definition
  3. Convention kinds
  4. Cabinet
  5. Parliament
  6. Monarch
  7. Dominions
  8. Importance
  9. Aims
  10. Important conventions
  11. No veto power
  12. Parliament must assemble each year
  13. Cabinet in responsible to parliament
  14. Crown must act on advise of PM
  15. Every Bill must have three readings before being voted upon.
  16. Speaker must resign from party upon its election
  17. Majority party leader elected as PM
  18. Bicameral parliament
  19. Money bills initiate from House of Commons
  20. Cabinet ministers
  21. House of Lords cannot reject a money bill
  22. House of Lords shall not oppose legislation part of Govt’s manifesto
  23. Sanction behind: “Fear of impeachment”
  24. Rule of law
  25. Code of honor
  26. Public opinion
  27. Conclusion

Topic 5

Organization of Judiciary

  1. Introduction
  2. Current system of judiciary
  3. Reforms in judicial system
  4. Features
  5. Rule of law
  6. Neutrality
  7. Independence of judiciary
  8. Jury system
  9. Speedy justice
  10. Equality
  11. Open trial
  12. Coordination in judicial system
  13. Guardian of civil liberties
  14. Dual system of Bar
  15. Judicial review
  16. Organization of civil courts
  17. County Courts
  18. High Court of Justice
  19. Queen’s Bench division
  20. Chancery division
  21. Family division
  22. Court of Appeal
  23. Supreme Court of UK
  24. Organization of Criminal Courts
  25. Crown Court
  26. High court of Justice
  27. Supreme Court of UK
  28. In Northern Ireland
  29. In Scotland
  30. Coroner’s Court
  31. Judicial Committee of Privy Council
  32. Conclusion

Topic 6

Judicial Independence

  1. Introduction
  2. Judicial Independence in UK
  3. Bushell’s Case 1679
  4. Howell’s Case 1678
  5. Rule of Law
  6. Separation of Powers
  7. Glorious Revolution of 1688
  8. Human Rights Act 1998
  9. Conventions relating to Judiciary
  10. Constitutional Reform Act 2005
  11. Organization of Judiciary
  12. Importance of Supreme Court
  13. Secured Judiciary
  14. Judicial Salaries
  15. British Judiciary then & Now
  16. Judicial Review & Administrative Courts in UK
  17. Conclusion

British Queen Reign But does not Rule!

Image

Stamp

 

  1. Introduction:
    The story of British Constitutional history is of first gradual unification of disparate kingdoms under one National sovereign and then struggle of supremacy between the Roman Church and the Crown and ultimately between the Parliament and Crown. In the meanwhile, the Crown kept losing its powers and was left with a very few prerogatives. This can be elaborated as below.
  2. Prerogatives:
    Prerogatives are the residual discretionary powers available to the Crown.
  3. British Queen:
    Queen Elizabeth II ascended to the throne in Feb’52. She holds the current title of British Queen and has the second longest term in history i.e. 62 years & counting.
  4. Peaceful transition:
    The factors that lead to the declination of powers of Queen grew gradually. There had been a peaceful transition from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy, Imagefrom feudalism to capitalism and from a police state to a welfare state. These changes are highly responsible for the fact that the current Queen reigns but do not rule.
  5. Statutory Acts that curtailed the power of British Crown:
    Following are the Acts which curtailed the powers of British Crown.
  6. Reform Bill 1832:
    The Crown despite of prerogative may not levy money without the consent of parliament. This act curtailed the financial authority of Crown.
  7. Act of Settlement 1701:
    It was stated that title to throne is not hereditary but under a parliamentary act. There were several other points mentioned in it, like:
    The King/Queen must be protestant.
    The King/Queen cannot marry a man/woman of his her own choice.
  8. Bill of Rights 1689:
    It was declared that parliamentary elections will be held free. No one could interfere in the matters of parliament. This curtailed the power of Crown to interfere in the matter of Parliament.
  9. Parliamentary Sovereignty:
    British parliament has become so strong that as of now it is said that
    a. It can do anything except make a man a woman and vice versa.
    b. No one can ruin British Parliament except it itself.
    c. It can declare a legitimate child an illegitimate & vice versa
    As soon as the powers of Parliament grew the Crown’s powers slowly were lessened.
  10. Crown bound to give assent:
    Crown’s assent on Parliamentary Bills is the final step in the process of legislation. And history shows that Crown is bound to give assent once it reaches the Crown. The king cannot veto a bill is thus a convention, he is mere a signatory figure.
  11. King can do no wrong:
    The maxim, ‘King can do no wrong’ had the force of law. King was not held responsible for any of his acts. He is God’s minister on Earth. But by the end of nineteenth century, it was declared as no good law. As no one is above the law and law applies to everybody.
  12. Appointment of peers:
    The King has a prerogative of appointing peers to House of Lords on the advice of Prime Minister & Cabinet. But this power has also been taken away with the new House of Lords Reform Bill 2012.
  13. House of Lords Reform Bill 2012:
    As announced by the Queen in May 2012, the 80% members of House of Lords shall be elected. It will be reduced to 450 members and 1st third shall be elected in 2015, 2nd third in 2020 and last third in 2025. It thus, curtailed the power of Crown to appoint peers.
  14. Acts on advise of Prime Minister & Cabinet:
    British Queen has powers limited to theory only. Everything is done in the name of Queen but in reality Queen has to consult take advise of Prime Minister and her Cabinet. It is a convention that the reigning King or Queen shall take advice of her Privy Council before doing anything.
  15. Prerogatives available:
    The current prerogatives available to the Queen are more or less only theoretical.
  16. Declaration of war & peace:
    Queen is the commander in chief of the British forces. She can declare War and Peace anytime but only on the advice of Prime Minister.
  17. Conclusion:
    The Queen reigns but does not rule. The above discussed factors lead to the declination of her powers. The parliamentary sovereignty or we can say supremacy of House of Commons exclusively is responsible for the fact that Queen reigns but does not rule.

 

In addition to this, Also add the following points:
1. Beheading of Charles I & running of James II from the country and then the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
2. Quote Walter Bagehot:
King of England has three powers and a wise King need not have anymore. Those three are The right to advice, the right to warn and the right to encourage ministers.
3. Ministers come and go, King continues; King never dies.
4. Queen Victoria ruled for 64 years, George V for 26 years, Now Queen Elizabeth for 62 years. Their experience come in handy when they consult ministers. 

British House of Commons

British House of Commons

 

House of Commons Introduction:

House of commons is the publicly elected legislative body of the Bicameral British Parliament. It is though the lower house, but it is dominant over the House of Lords.

Origin

There is no specific date, but somewhere in 13th century when representatives were sent to King from different parts of Britain to talk about issues of their area, it is said to have existed.

Total Members

Total number of members of House of Commons is 650 out of which 533 members are elected from England, 59 from Scotland, 40 from Wales and 18 from Northern Ireland. Each member is elected from a constituency of 70,000 people.

Tenure of House of Commons

As members of House of Commons are elected the tenure is fixed as 5 Years. Unless, the House of Commons is dissolved by the Queen on the advice of PM the term may vary.

Qualification Criteria

  1. Any British citizen can become the part of House of Commons.
  2. According to 2006 Electoral Administration Act Sec 17, a British citizen of 18 years age can contest elections for House of Commons.
  3. Candidate must not be a Bankrupt.
  4. Candidate should be sound mentally.
  5. It was thought to be a convention that dead and dumb cannot become member of House of Commons. But Jack Ashley who served as member of House of Commons for 25 years was deaf.
  6. He should not be a convict.
  7. He should not be a member of House of Lords.

Procedure to Nomination

A candidate willing to get nominated for a constituency may submit nomination papers which are signed by 10 voters of that constituency. After it, he has to pay GBP500 to election commission as a security deposit. It would be refundable if he gets at least 5% of the votes.

Disqualification

As described under House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975, following are disqualified to become a member of House of Commons

  1. Holders of Judicial officers.
  2. Civil servants.
  3. Member of armed forces.
  4. Member of foreign legislature.
  5. Holder of Crown offices.

Elections

There are two types of Parliamentary elections in Britain.

  1. 1.       General Elections

These take place after every 5 years and only on Thursday.

  1. 2.       By Elections

When there is vacancy (if a member dies or resigns) in the House of Commons then by-elections take place.

Adult Suffrage

According to Representation of the People’s Act 1949 as amended by the 1969 Act, following person are entitled to vote:

  1. Must be a British subject.
  2. 18 years of age and above.
  3. Whose name is recorded in the Voter’s Register of his constituency.

Presiding Officer

Speaker is the presiding officer of House of Commons. He is elected when new parliament comes into being. John Bercow is the current speaker of House of Commons.

Functions

Legislative Functions

It is the effective legislative authority in Britain. All legislation proceeds from House of Commons. A leader who is a Cabinet minister is appointed to manage the legislative programs. It can modify or discard existing laws and can make new laws. Parliament Acts of 1911 & 1949 curtailed the powers of House of Lords and gave great authority to House of Commons.

Financial Authority

According to Parliament Acts, All money bills must only originate from House of Commons and House of Lords cannot delay a money bill for over a month. If in this period they don’t pass the bill, House of Commons sends it to the King which becomes an Act after his Assent. This gives them great authority over imposing taxes and making budget.

Administrative Authority

It acts as administrative authority by questioning the government and ministers are obliged to reply. PM’s question time occurs on Wednesday for half an hour. They use their power to scrutinize government through question time.

Debating Assembly

The opposition in the House of Commons criticizes government’s administrative and policy making. When the house debates the reply to the King’s speech then opposition gets the best opportunity to criticize the government. It allows the ministry to defend the government.

Privileges

Free Speech

House has a right to free speech. They have complete freedom in the matter and manner of debate.

Access to Crown

House of Commons collectively have an access to Crown.

Regulating Constitution

House of Commons can create or repeal the Acts anytime they want.

Acts not challenged by Courts

Any Act passed by Parliament cannot be challenged in any court of Britain. There is no concept of Judicial review and there exist no Administrative courts

Prohibit publication and open sessions

House may decide to have a private sitting and also have the right to prohibit the publication of its own debate.

Exclude strangers

House possesses the right to exclude strangers.

Enforce Privileges

House has a right to enforce its privileges and commit for contempt for breach of its privileges: Hansard vs Stockdale.

Freedom from Arrest:

Members of House of Commons cannot be arrested in Civil cases for a period of 40 days before and after the sessions of Parliament.

Dominance over House of Lords

House of commons enjoys dominance over House of Lords in many aspects which are most important like authority in finances and administration.

Conventions:

There are many conventions related to House of Commons, house of PM is at 10 Downing Street, Green colored seats in House of Commons, PM should be from House of Commons, Speaker is non partisan and many more.

Conclusion:

British House of Commons is the most vital organ of British Parliament. It originates money bills which cannot be vetoed by House of Lords, this describes its powers very clearly. British House of Commons can make Laws in the morning and may repeal the same in evening. It possesses great authority in administration, legislation and finances.

 

 

 

 

Libertarian Theory of Media

Libertarian Theory
Libertarian theory is one of the four normative theories of communication. This theory
arose in opposition to the ‘Authoritarian Theory’. It talks about complete freedom of
expression and places individuals above the state & its law.
History:
This theory is believed to have evolved in the 16th & 17th century. When founding
fathers of America wrote ‘Constitution for America’, they kept ‘Liberty’ of people of
America as their utmost right. The first ten amendments known as ‘Bill of Rights’ of
American Constitution guarantee Liberty to each and every citizen of America.
Work of Researchers:
There are four philosophers accredited with its development, ‘John Milton’, ‘John Stuart
Mill’, ‘Thomas Jefferson’ & ‘John Erskine’. Their work was combined and properly
formatted by ‘Fred Sibert’ who later developed the ‘Normative theories of Press’.
Views of Milton:
He said that people had capacity to distinguish between right and wrong things, so they
should enjoy freedom. Their ideas should be in access of other people.
Views of Erskine:
People intend to enlighten others and not misleading them. They should be able to
address and know what is believed to be true universally.
Views of Stuart Mill:
He believed that people had the right to think and act as they pleased, unless it infringes
the right of others.
Views of Jefferson:
He borrowed Milton’s ideas and believed that if people in a society are not able to reach
at a sound decision, then press is the instrument which informs people. So, press should
be free of control.
Features of Theory:
As developed by Sibert, the theory has following prominent features:
· Competitive exposure of alternative viewpoints.
· Attacks on the government’s policies are accepted and even encouraged: the media as  a watchdog.

· Journalists and media professionals ought to have full autonomy within the media
organization.
· There is no explicit connection between the government and the media.
· The press is free from censorship
· It is accountable to the law for any consequences of its activities that infringe other
individuals’ rights or the legitimate claims of the society.
· The protection of dignity, reputation, property, privacy, moral development of
individuals, groups, minorities, evens the security of the state no infringement accepted
from media.
Drawbacks:
Such an extensive freedom is also a problem as all people have the right to speak and
receive information freely, but no one takes responsibility of the wrong doings. The
ethics in multicultural or pluralistic societies vary from place to place; hence there is
always complaint against the media of each other’s society.
Strengths:
1. Freedom of press will give more freedom to media to reveal the real thing happening
in the society without any censorship or any authority blockades.
2. It is too positive about individual ethics and rationality.
3. It gives more values for individuals to express their thoughts in media.
Examples:
In every-day’s print & broadcast media, Government is being scrutinized for their
working. Geo, Express, Dawn Newspaper and many other private channels enjoy liberty.
They freely raise questions and condemn the working of government. They have exceed
so much that now Government is answerable to them. Recently, when president Gillani
faced contempt of court charge, he also faced a media trial. Shahbaz Sharif’s metro bus
system was openly criticized and was questioned upon as well.
Conclusion:
This theory is prevalent in all four corners of the Democratic world. Also with the ‘UN
Charter of Human Rights’ freedom of expression has become the most prominent right
of everyone. In regard of this theory media enjoys complete freedom.